You can book a trip to the desert from either Ouarzazate or Marrakech. There are dozens of companies that will take you in their 4x4s to the desert, arrange lodging in a hotel on the side of the dunes, and make sure you get your sunset camel trek into the desert. There are two main desert locations in Morocco-- Merzouga, which is somewhat closer to Fes (although quite far from everything) and Zagora, which is closer to Ouarzazate. I've been to both and prefer Zagora, in part because you travel through an incredible and verdant Draa river valley that is full of date and fig trees, en route to the desert.
Zagora is the departure point for many of the Sahara camel expeditions of olden days and as such you see influences on the culture, music, and food that are informed by sub Saharan Africa, the Tuareg, and the nomadic tribes that lived in the region for centuries.
This region is known for its carpets, some made with camel and goat's hair, for it's green pottery, silver Tuareg jewelry, and juicy dates and figs.